In this episode of Virus Watch, IÂ explainÂ how mosquitoes spread viruses. We’ll look at how a mosquito finds a host, how it finds a blood vessel, and how it delivers viruses to a new host. Don’t blame mosquitoes for viral diseases: it’s not their fault!
TWiV 350: Viral gene therapy with Katherine High
On episode #350 of the science show This Week in Virology,Â VincentÂ speaks with Katherine High about her career and her work on using viral gene therapy to treat inherited disorders.
This episode is drawn fromÂ one of twenty-sixÂ video interviews with leading scientists who have made significant contributions to the field of virology, part of the new edition of the textbookÂ Principles of Virology.
You can find TWiV #350 at www.microbe.tv/twiv.
TWiV 349: One ring to vaccinate them all
On episode #349 of the science show This Week in Virology,Â Vincent, Alan and Rich explain how to make a functional ribosome with tethered subunits, and review the results of a phase III VSV-vectored Ebolavirus vaccine trial in Guinea.
You can find TWiV #349 at www.microbe.tv/twiv.
An Ebolavirus vaccine in Africa
An Ebolavirus vaccine has shown promising results in a clinical trial in Guinea. This vaccine has been in development since 2004 and was madeÂ possible byÂ advancesÂ in basic virology of the past 40 years.
The ability to produce theÂ Ebolavirus vaccine, called rVSV-EBOV, originates in the 1970s with the discovery of the enzyme reverse transcriptase, the development of recombinantÂ DNA technology, and the ability to rapidly and accurately determine the sequence of nucleic acids. These advances came together in 1981 when it was shown that cloned DNA copies of RNA viral genomes (a bacteriophage, a retrovirus, and poliovirus), carried in a bacterial plasmid, wereÂ infectious when introduced into mammalian cells. Production of an infectious DNA copy of the genome of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)Â was reported in 1995. In their paper the authors noted:
Because VSV can be grown to very high titers and in large quantities with relative ease, it may be possible to genetically engineer recombinant VSVs displaying foreign antigens. Such modified viruses could be useful as vaccines conferring protection against other viruses.
This technology was subsequently used in 2004 to produceÂ replication competent VSV carrying the genes encoding the glycoproteins of filoviruses, which others had shown are the targets of neutralizing antibodies. When injected into mice,Â these recombinantÂ viruses induced neutralizing antibodies that were protective against lethal disease afterÂ challenge with Ebolavirus.
In a series of experiments done over the next 10 years,Â rVSV-EBOV was shown to protect nonhuman primates from lethal disease. In these experiments, animals were injected intramuscularly with the vaccine and challenged with Ebolavirus. The vaccine induced protection against lethal disease and prevented viremia. Extensive studies of the VSV vector in ~80 nonhuman primatesÂ showedÂ no serious side effects, and only transient vector viremia.
The rVSV-EBOV wasÂ originally developed by Public Health Agency of Canada, and subsequently licensed to NewLink Genetics. Financial support has been provided from Canadian and US governments and others. FromÂ 2005Â to theÂ present, the NIH Rocky Mountain Laboratory in Hamilton, Montana has also been involved in this work, particularly with nohuman primate challenge studies. InÂ November 2014 Merck entered an agreement with NewLink to manufacture and distribute the vaccine.
In August 2014, well into West Africa Ebolavirus outbreak, Canada donated 800 vials of vaccine to WHO, which then established theÂ VSV Ebola Consortium (VEBCON) to conduct humanÂ trials.
The results of Phase I trials of rVSV-EBOV in Africa (Gabon, Kenya) and Europe (Hamburg, Geneva) were published onÂ 1 April 2015. These trials comprised three open-label, dose-escalation trials, and one randomized, double blind controlled trial in 158 adults. Each volunteer was given one injection of 300,000 to 50 million plaque-forming units of rVSV-EBOVÂ or placebo. No serious vaccine related events were reported, but immunization was accompanied by fever, joint pain, and some vesicular dermatitis. A transient systemic infection was observed, followed by development ofÂ Ebolavirus-specific antibody responses in all participants, and neutralizing antibodies in most.
The interim results of a phase III trial of rVSV-EBOV, begun on 23 March 2015 in Guinea, have just been published. It is a cluster-randomized trialÂ with a novel design that isÂ modeled on the ring vaccination approach used for smallpox eradication in the 1970s. In ring vaccination, individuals in the area of an outbreak are immunized, in contrast to treating a larger segment of the population. During this trial, when a case of Ebolavirus infection was identified, all contacts and contacts-of-contacts were identified. Some of these individuals were immediately immunized intramuscularly with 2 x 107 PFU, and others (randomly chosen) were immunized three weeks later. The primary outcome was Ebolavirus disease confirmed by PCR. As new cases arose in other areas (clusters), these were treated in the same way, hence the name ofÂ cluster-randomized trial.
The press has widely reported that the vaccine was ‘100% protective’. This outcome sounds much better than is represented by the data, so let’s look at the numbers.
Zero cases of Ebolavirus disease were observed in 2,014 immediately vaccinated people, while 16 cases were identified in those given delayed vaccine (n=2,380). These numbers were used to calculate the vaccine efficacy ofÂ 100%. While statistically significant, the numbers are small.
More telling are the resultsÂ obtained when we consider all individuals eligible for immunization, not just those who were immunized (some were excluded for a variety of reasons). Of 4,123 eligible individuals, 2,014 were immunized as noted above, but 2,109 did not receive vaccine. EightÂ cases of Ebola virus disease were noted in theÂ non-immunizedÂ population. This number is small, a consequence of the fact that the outbreak is waning.
On the basis of these interim results, theÂ data and safety monitoring board decided that the trialÂ should continue. However because the board felt that the vaccine is a success, they decided to curtail randomization of subjects into immediately vaccinated and delayed vaccinated groups. Now all contacts and contacts-of-contacts will immediately receive vaccine. As a consequence of this change, it will not be possible to improve the accuracy of vaccine efficacy. For example,Â when many more individuals are immunized in the future, many fewer that 100% might be protected from disease.
There are two lessonsÂ I would like you to remember from this brief history of an Ebolavirus vaccine. Developing a vaccine takes a long time (minimum 11 years for rVSV-EBOV) and depends on advances made with both basic and clinical research. Â Don’t believe anyone who says that this vaccine was made in a year. And always look at the numbers when you hear that a vaccine hasÂ 100%Â efficacy.
TWiV 268: Transmission is inevitable
On episode #268 of the science show This Week in Virology,Â Vincent, Alan, Kathy, and Ashlee discuss fomites in physicians offices, plant virus factories involved in aphid transmission, and clues from the bat genome about flight and immunity.
You can find TWiV #268 at www.microbe.tv/twiv.
TWiV 244: Back in the CVVR
Episode #244 of the science show This Week in VirologyÂ was recorded before an audience at the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, where Vincent and Alan spoke with Dan and Jeff about AIDS vaccines.
You can find TWiV #244 at www.microbe.tv/twiv.