Infection with yellow fever virus caused the death of a patient 25 years after receiving a kidney transplant, illustrating the difficulties associated with some medical vaccine exemptions.
The patient had received a kidney transplant at the age of 58 in February 1993. Nearly 25 years later he was admitted to hospital with two days of fever, nausea, and vomiting. A sonogram revealed an enlarged right lobe of the liver, but tests for hepatitis A, B, C and HIV-1 were negative. He progressed to hepatic insufficiency and acute liver failure and died 6 days after admission to hospital.