Since the first association of the retrovirus XMRV with chronic fatigue syndrome in 2009 in the US, subsequent studies have failed to detect evidence of infection in patients from the US, Europe, and China. These studies were potentially compromised by a number of factors, such as differences in patient characterization, geographic locations, clinical samples used, and methods used to detect the virus.Â These and other potentially confounding conditions have been addressed inÂ the most comprehensive study to date on the association of XMRV with CFS.
In the introduction to their paper, published in the Journal of Virology, the authors note other problems with many of the studies of XMRV in CFS patients:
- Too small control populations
- Patient and control samples collected at different times
- Investigators generally not blinded to sample identity
- PCR assays that rely on conservation of viral sequence mainly used
- Limits of detection, reproducibility, and precision of assays unknown
- Controls for each step that would identify analysis not done
- Insufficient numbers of negative controls included
- No study included positive samples from the original 2009 patient cohort of Lombardi et al.
To address these issues, the authors collected blood from 105 CFS patients and 200 healthy volunteers in the Salt Lake City area. One hundred of the patients fulfilled both the CDC-Fukuda and the Canadian consensus criteria for diagnosis of ME/CFS. The patients were selected from aÂ clinic that specializes in the diagnosis and management of CFS and fibromyalgia.
New blood samples were also collected (by a third party) from 14 patients from the original study by Lombardi et al. The samples were blinded for subsequent study. Detection of viral nucleic acids was done using four different PCR assays. Anti-XMRV antibodies in patient sera were detected byÂ ELISA. Finally, virus growth from clinical specimens was attempted in cell culture. The authors used the multiple experimental approaches reported by Lombardi and colleagues.
Let’s go through the results of each assay separately.
PCR for viral nucleic acids. Four different quantitative PCR assays were developed that detect different regions of the viral genome. The assay for pol sequencesÂ has been used by several groups and is the most specific PCR assay for XMRV. Three other PCR assays were also used that target the LTR, gag and env regions of XMRV DNA.Â These assays could detect at least 5 viral copies of XMRV DNA. The precision and reproducibility of the PCR assays, as well as their specificity for XMRV, were also demonstrated. DNA prepared from white blood cells of 100 CFS patients and 200 controls were negative for XMRV. For every 96 PCR reactions, 12 water controls were included; these were always negative for XMRV DNA.
XMRV antibodies in human sera. To detect XMRV antibodies in human serum, a portion of the viral envelope protein, called SU, was expressed in cells and purified from the cell culture medium. The SU protein was attached to plastic supports, and human serum was added. Any anti-XMRV antibodies in human sera will attach to the SU protein and can subsequently be detected by a colorimetric assay (we have discussed this type of assay previously). This assay revealed no differences in the amount of bound human antibodies for sera from CFS patients or healthy controls. Some of the patient sera were also used in western blot analysis. Recombinant XMRV SU protein was fractionated by gel electrophoresis. The protein on the gel is then transferred to a membrane which is mixed with human serum. If there are anti-XMRV antibodies in the human serum, they will react with the SU protein on the membrane, and can be detected by a colorimetric assay. When rabbit anti-XMRV serum was used in this assay, the SU protein was readily detected. None of the human sera analyzed by this method were found to contain antibodies that detect SU protein.
Infectious XMRV in human plasma. It has been suggested that the most sensitive method for detecting XMRV in patients is to inoculate cultured cells with clinical material and look forÂ evidence of XMRV replication. The XMRV-susceptible cell line LNCaP was therefore infected with 0.1 mlÂ of plasma from 31 patients and 34 healthy volunteers; negative and positive controls were also included. Viral replication was measured by western blot analysis and quantitative PCR. No viral protein or DNA was detected in any culture after incubation for up to 6 weeks.
Analysis of previously XMRV-positive samples. Blood was drawn from twenty-five patients who had tested positive for XMRV as reported by Lombardi et al. These samples were all found to be negative for XMRV DNA and antibodies by the PCR and ELISA assays described above. In addition, no infectious XMRV could be cultured from these 25 samples.
Presence of mouse DNA. After not finding XMRV using qPCR, serological, and viral culture assays, the authors used the nested PCR assay described by Lo et al. Although positives were observed, they were not consistent between different assays. This led the authors to look for contamination in their PCR reagents. After examination of each component, they found that two different versions of Taq polymerase, the enzyme used in PCR assays, contained trace amounts of mouse DNA.
Given the care with which these numerous assays were developed and conducted, it is possible to conclude with great certainty that the patient samples examined in this study do not contain XMRV DNA or antibodies to the virus. It’s not clear why the 14 patients resampled from the original Lombardi et al. study were negative for XMRV in this new study. The authors suggest one possibility: presence of “trace amounts of mouse DNA in the Taq polymerase enzymes used in these previous studies”. I believe that it is important to determine the source of XMRV in samples that have been previously tested positive for viral nucleic acid or antibodies. Without this information, questions about the involvement of XMRV in CFS will continue to linger in the minds of many non-scientists.
At the end of the manuscript the authors state their conclusion from this study:
Given the lack of evidence for XMRV or XMRV-like viruses in our cohort of CFS patients, as well as the lack of these viruses in a set of patients previously tested positive, we feel that that XMRV is not associated with CFS. We are forced to conclude that prescribing antiretroviral agents to CFS patients is insufficiently justified and potentially dangerous.
They also note that there is “still a wealth of prior data to encourage further research into the involvement of other infectious agents in CFS, and these efforts must continue.”
Clifford H. Shin, Lucinda Bateman, Robert Schlaberg, Ashley M. Bunker, Christopher J. Leonard, Ronald W. Hughen, Alan R. Light, Kathleen C. Light, & Ila R. Singh1* (2011). Absence of XMRV and other MLV-related viruses in patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Journal of Virology : 10.1128/JVI.00693-11