TWiV 496: Vaccines work, whether or not you believe in them

Vincent and Rich recorded this episode at Vaccines in the 21st Century, a meeting held at the University of California, Irvine, where they spoke with Stacy Schultz-Cherry, Douglas Diekema, and Andrew Noymer about vaccine facts and fiction.

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A Live-Attenuated Herpes Simplex Virus Vaccine Candidate

herpesvirusBy Gertrud U. Rey

There is currently no vaccine to prevent infection with herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 (HSV-1 or HSV-2). Infection with either of these viruses results in life-long viral latency. Sporadic reactivation and viral shedding may lead to painful oral and genital disease and an increased risk of HIV transmission.

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TWiV 494: Ebola Makona is the opposite of hakuna matata

Vincent, Kathy, and Alan review the ongoing outbreak of Ebola virus in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and the finding that mutations identified in the 2015 West African epidemic do not alter pathogenesis in animals.

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TWiV 480: The PFU in your achoo

Scott Hensley joins the TWiVites to review the current influenza season and presence of the virus in exhaled breath of symptomatic cases.

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Scott Hensley of the University of Pennsylvania helps us summarize the current influenza season so far. Bottom line: it’s a very serious season with a great deal of morbidity and mortality. As usually, serious disease and deaths occur in unvaccinated individuals. Although there is a mismatch between the influenza vaccine and this year’s H3N2 strain, which is causing most of the infections, vaccination still reduces disease severity cause by this strain, as well as by the circulating H1N1 and influenza B viruses. Next we discuss an interesting study of symptomatic college students with influenza. The goal was to determine which mode of influenza transmission is likely to be important: contact, or aerosols produced by speaking, coughing, or sneezing. The results show that simple breathing leads to virus in the breath – small aerosols that can travel distances to infect others. Coughing, but not sneezing, was a major observed sign of infection, but neither was needed for infectious aerosol generation.

How a toupee compromised influenza vaccine

The influenza virus vaccine is frequently updated to ensure that it protects against infection with circulating virus strains. In some years the vaccine matches the circulating strains, but in others, there is a mismatch. The result is that the vaccine is less effective at protecting from infection. During the 2014-15 influenza season there was a mismatch due to growing the vaccine in embryonated chicken eggs.

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TWiV 459: Polio turns over a new leaf

The TWiV team reviews the first FDA approved gene therapy, accidental exposure to poliovirus type 2 in a manufacturing plant, and production of a candidate poliovirus vaccine in plants.

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Show notes at microbe.tv/twiv

TWiV 445: A nido virology meeting

From Nido2017 in Kansas City, Vincent  meets up with three virologists to talk about their careers and their work on nidoviruses.

Show notes at microbe.tv/twiv

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TWiV 432: Conjunction junction, what’s your function?

The TWiVites discuss Zika virus seroprevalence in wild monkeys, Zika virus mRNA vaccines, and a gamete fusion protein inherited from viruses.

You can find TWiV #432 at microbe.tv/twiv, or listen below.

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TWiV 425: All picornaviruses, all the time

The TWiVaniellos discuss a thermostable poliovirus empty capsid vaccine, and two cell genes that act as a switch between entry and clearance of picornavirus infection.

You can find TWiV #425 at microbe.tv/twiv, or listen below.

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TWiV 422: Watching the icosahedron drop

The TWiVestigators wrap up 2016 with a discussion of the year’s ten compelling virology stories.

You can find TWiV #422 at microbe.tv/twiv, or listen below.

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