Origin of current influenza H1N1 virus

influenza-oligonucleotide-mapInfluenza viruses of two subtypes, H1N1 and H3N2, have been causing respiratory infections in humans since 1977. Before that year, it was believed that only one human subtype circulated each flu season. How did this unusual situation come about?

Major changes in the surface glycoproteins of influenza virus – called antigenic shift – lead to worldwide epidemics of influenza known as pandemics. There have been six instances of antigenic shift since 1889. In that year, H2N2 viruses circulated, followed by H3N8 in 1900, H1N1 in 1918, H2N2 in 1957, H3N2 in 1968, and H1N1 in 1977. Each pandemic strain carries HA and NA proteins that have been absent in humans for many years, and therefore immunity is either very low or nonexistent.

Influenza viruses of the H3N2 subtype were still circulating in humans in May of 1977 when H1N1 viruses were isolated in China and then Russia. In the winter of 1977-78 the H1N1 viruses caused epidemic infection throughout the Northern Hemisphere. The results of serological tests indicated that the HA and NA glycoproteins of the 1977 H1N1 viruses were very similar to those from viruses of the same subtype which circulated in 1950. Palese’s group compared viral RNA of one 1977 isolate, A/USSR/90/77, with RNA from a virus isolated in 1950. To their surprise, the two viral RNAs were highly related. In contrast, there was less similarity between viral RNAs from the 1977 H1N1 virus and H1N1 viruses that circulated in humans between 1947 and 1956.

Why were the viral genomes of the 1977 H1N1 isolate and the 1950 virus so similar? If the H1N1 viruses had been replicating in an animal host for 27 years, far more genetic differences would have been identified. The authors suggested several possibilities, but only one is compelling:

…it is possible that the 1950 H1N1 influenza virus was truly frozen in nature or elsewhere and that such a strain was only recently introduced into man.

The suggestion is clear: the virus was frozen in a laboratory freezer since 1950, and was released, either by intent or accident, in 1977. This possibility has been denied by Chinese and Russian scientists, but remains to this day the only scientifically plausible explanation.

The close genetic identity between the 1950 and 1977 H1N1 strains was revealed by oligonucleotide mapping. In this technique, purified viral RNA is cleaved with an enzyme, RNAse T1, that cuts the RNA after every G base. The oligonucleotides are labeled at the 5′-end with 32P, separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and detected by exposing the gel to X-ray film. The oligonucleotides form a pattern (‘fingerprint’, pictured) that can reveal genetic differences between virus isolates. This technique is more sensitive than serologic assays, but only provides information on about 10-15% of the viral RNA. However, the larger oligonucleotides are a representative sample of the entire genome. The authors calculated that there was a minimum of 8 bases changes among the large oligonucleotides of the RNAs of the 1950 and 1977 H1N1 viruses. In contrast, the RNA of the 1977 H1N1 isolate had 38 base changes compared with a 1947 H1N1 isolate.

Oligonucleotide mapping was used to study the genome of the 1977 H1N1 viruses because nucleotide sequencing was not yet in widespread use. Because nucleotide sequencing is now routine, oligonucleotide mapping is no longer used – as scientists like to say, it has been relegated to the museum of obsolete experimental methods.

I was a Ph.D. student in Peter Palese’s laboratory when Katsuhisa Nakajima and Ulrich Desselberger did the work in 1978 that revealed the close identity of the H1N1 strains with isolates from 1950. It revealed to me, for the first time, how an important finding creates enormous excitement in the laboratory and in the scientific community, and how general interest is fueled by the press. The work was accompanied by a News and Views article entitled “Influenza A viruses: shaking out our shibboleths”. I clearly remember Peter Palese asking me if I knew what a shibboleth was. I thought it was one of H.P. Lovecraft’s fictitious creatures.

Katsuhisa Nakajima, Ulrich Desselberger, Peter Palese (1978). Recent human influenza A (H1N1) viruses are closely related genetically to strains isolated in 1950 Nature, 274 (5669), 334-339 DOI: 10.1038/274334a0

Francis A. Ennis (1978). Influenza A viruses: shaking out our shibboleths Nature, 274 (5669), 309-310 DOI: 10.1038/274309b0

Comments on this entry are closed.

  • BNFRMD 28 August 2009, 6:35 pm

    I completely agree with rogerv's assessment of the current H1N1 issue. The pattern of disinformation on the part of governmental agencies replicates that of the emergence of the AIDS virus and also how the virus suspiciously targeted culturally disadvantaged and/or disparaged groups, the inconsistent zoonosis timeline, and how it's emergence coincided with the smallpox and Hepatitis B vaccination campaigns then being implemented within the target populations. Given the above, one should be wary of a government controlled vaccination campaign based on an H1N1 fear. The fact that the devil is truly in the details of a complex science and that the general population has little patience for examining the troubling history behind world governance and strategies of tensions, gives malevolent forces a clear advantage.

  • BNFRMD 28 August 2009, 6:35 pm

    I completely agree with rogerv's assessment of the current H1N1 issue. The pattern of disinformation on the part of governmental agencies replicates that of the emergence of the AIDS virus and also how the virus suspiciously targeted culturally disadvantaged and/or disparaged groups, the inconsistent zoonosis timeline, and how it's emergence coincided with the smallpox and Hepatitis B vaccination campaigns then being implemented within the target populations. Given the above, one should be wary of a government controlled vaccination campaign based on an H1N1 fear. The fact that the devil is truly in the details of a complex science and that the general population has little patience for examining the troubling history behind world governance and strategies of tensions, gives malevolent forces a clear advantage.

  • hadiya varnado 28 September 2009, 4:19 pm

    this is not all info that i needed you guys need to update your site because i learned all this in school i need to know the scientific name for the H1N1 virus and its history not the comparisoion between the h1n1 and the H3N2 ok i need info

  • Ed Wright 5 October 2009, 11:55 pm

    An even better and less offensive name would be Legislative or Government Flu

  • pulseman 10 October 2009, 12:23 pm

    Greetings to all!
    I have been reading this blog looking at different comments trying to differentiate between facts and opinions, and its been interesting. I am not a scientist but I do understand science and I do think in a militaristic way. Here are my thoughts on the subject:
    there is no question that the USA is on a military conflict against some opposing groups, and these have no option but to fight in an unconventional way against the military might of this country. There are also many other minor groups who lack a political agenda, but would facilitate a terrorists agenda for money. I understand that it requires very little tech to actually modify viruses and microbes, the stuff needed can be readily purchased over the counter. It would be very easy to theorize that an attack with something as innocent as a FLU virus could disrupt an entire country's economy if the virus itself was virulent enough to do so.
    You now could probably see where I'm going. It is very possible that this was a real attempt to cause a lot of damage, when in reality it has not. Just look at the timing. Our Government realizes how bad things could get if this new FLU was really more lethal than it has proven. That is why they are doing what they are doing. It is very interesting to see how a lot of you (and sometimes me) are so suspicious of Government actions. There is a lot of miss-information and this causes distrust.
    Mexico is a country with a lot of corruption and lawlessness, and next to the target country. The perfect place to start something like this. I have an inclination to think this was no natural phenomena, especially knowing what is known about the nature of the virus. What is really good news is that the virus does not seem as deadly as the regular FLU. I would suggest do get vaccinated as the benefits out weight the dangers of the vaccine.
    Our intelligence services by now would know quite a bit if the scenario above was real, but this info would be classified and not very well known outside their circles. Maybe by now the individuals responsible (if any) have already been taken care of. Let me inform you as some of you do not know, there is a huge state of the art microbiological lab in the island of Cuba, capable of creating biological warfare agents. Could it be possible? Yes it could be.
    Your duty is not to get sick and to avoid transmission to others for humanitarian reasons. One death due to this virus is one too many. This is my 10 cents worth.

  • katieRim 12 October 2009, 11:27 am

    With regard to the most recent origin, was it not the US owned, and opeated pig farm in Mexico that was revealed in the Media but never followed up?

  • Blake Connolly 14 October 2009, 11:04 am

    The bible was the best novel ever written.
    Evolution is a theory because ignornat bible types need to have man's timeline laid in front of them like a school lunch line. As we succesfully find these fossils, and prove the exact chain of events, they will no doubt come up with another unprovable concept. That, or they will say “well, ok, yes. It does seem as if all these different steps are very similar, but “GOD” is the one who actually made the last step happen”
    And when you say “All of the brightest minds in the world believe in God as our creator”, you couldn't sound more uninformed.
    Just please let the adults discuss science, and keep the santa, god, easter bunny, vampire stuff seperate

  • yesmiw2035 16 October 2009, 9:43 am

    Must be for CNN

  • Graham 21 October 2009, 7:17 am

    Depopulation should be the highest priority of U.S. foreign policy
    towards the third world – Henry Kissinger

  • katie 22 October 2009, 5:58 am

    I had a friend who had an interesting point of view and I was wondering if you could comment. He seems to think that thia strain of H1N1 did not orginate in the pigs. If it did not start in it's beginning host he thinks it may hve been a government experiment to see how the world would respnd to a global pandemic. Does H1N! have to actually start in the pigs and then transfer to human and then human to human? And could a government actually run some kind of health experiment like this?

  • profvrr 23 October 2009, 3:44 pm

    All the evidence indicates that the 2009 H1N1 virus did originate in
    pigs. It's a new virus with genes from swine, bird, and human hosts.
    The mixing of different viruses probably occurred in pigs but it also
    might have taken place in another host. There are many laboratories
    that can produce genetically modified influenza viruses, but there
    isn't a scientist on the globe who could have known the exact
    combination of human, swine, and avian genes, and the mutations in
    them, that would produce a human pathogen. I realize that many people
    feel that the virus is a government experiments. But there are so many
    different influenza viruses in many different animal species, that it
    would be experimentally impossible to try all the different
    combinations of genes and mutations that would be needed to produce a
    human pathogenic influenza virus.

  • scottsinclair 23 October 2009, 6:18 pm

    This is typical of how we are not in control of our world around us. And I quote, ” The suggestion is clear: the virus was frozen in a laboratory freezer since 1950, and was released, either by intent or accident, in 1977. ” So, in effect, our own stupidity is creating or will eventually create a worldwide epidemic which will kill millions.

  • Name 23 October 2009, 8:47 pm

    The Soviet Union was launching viruses into the upper atmosphere towards Europe and North America, from their island research, I believe an island lab in the now dry Aural sea. This was going to be brought to the attention of the UN, however the Cuban Missile Crisis removed it from the list of important things to do.

    From my understanding, this was never an issue raised to the Soviet Union.

  • Name 23 October 2009, 8:56 pm

    What if the “engineering” was simpler? What if virus material was exposed to various things like radiation, forcing it to mutate? What if they were placed together and in combinations and mutated?

    Seems to me, a ham fisted way could get lucky on making some witch's brew that would infect humans.

    Take bad vial A, and bad vial B, etc. and there you go. Stir it them together and start bombardment.

    Test on subjects of choice.

  • Name 23 October 2009, 9:01 pm

    > When you attempt to inject 60 million to 195 million, or more US citizens, you're going to have a high
    > incident of health related problems just from the thimerosal additive and the Squalene adjuvant al0ne
    > (of which the victims and their families will have no recourse to seek damages in the courts).

    All those sick people might just insist on government health care for a solution?

  • Name 23 October 2009, 9:06 pm

    Firstly, do your homework.

    Darwin ripped off his famous work. (See “A Delicate Arrangement”)

    Also, “The Bible” in current, standard form, is 66 books. Written over several centuries.

    The problem with the “debate” of it in scientific circles, is that on the one hand you have non-scientist believers, and on the other, non-believer scientists. Typically the two sides know little or nothing of the other, and both blather on like two sects at war.

    So, shoving it off just because it seems not scientific, or various believers are not scientists is a bit naive, or uninformed, or possibly just arrogant.

  • Doug Way 23 October 2009, 9:08 pm

    Ask the people at Dugway, maybe they can help you answer that.

  • the_rationalist 24 October 2009, 10:25 pm

    Isn' t this the Mayan prophecy – 2012? You are a nut, ryan. As a PhD grad student in Biochemistry/Immunology, I can say Prof. Racaniello knows his science.

  • Jim Mercer 25 October 2009, 12:40 pm

    Hello Professor.

    Given what you know about Influenza A H1N1, if a Department of Education – in conjunction with a Department of Health and “Mental Hygiene” (NYC as you might guess) – sent a twelve page “Vaccination Consent” form home with your 8-year old daughter, outlining the lovely choices of vaccine options available to you and your daughter, namely, Live Intranasal or Inactivated Injection, which would you choose?

    As expected, towards the end of this masterpiece was a well-crafted paragraph thoughtfully informing me that vaccine injury compensation options and ability to sue are limited by law.

    Noticeably missing was any option to decline the vaccination altogether – which we intend to do. My eight year old is now well-versed in how to say “no”, and to defer “any futher discussion on the matter” to mom and dad. As an aside, our 12-year old daughter had a half dozen friends contract H1N1 earlier in the year. They were sent home, but *all* of them were back in school a week later after bed rest, plenty of fluids, and off-the-shelf flu remedies.

    I'm puzzled (actually, troubled) by the government (and commercial pharma) zeal.

    Again, your view on vaccination options would be appreciated. We see no compelling reason for complimentary doses of Thimerisol and/or Squaline.

    Kind Regards,

  • RogerV 25 October 2009, 2:44 pm

    This article is a bit dated, but have heard nothing that would indicate anything that is otherwise – especially in light of Obama now declaring H1N1 a national emergency:

    First Daughters Not Vaccinated Against H1N1
    Posted By Anne Marie Riha On October 8, 2009 @ 3:01 pm In White House

  • RogerV 25 October 2009, 2:47 pm

    The appearance of this report over in Germany created a bit of a stir there couple weeks back:

    German army gets special swine flu vaccine without controversial additives given to general public
    Published on 10-13-2009

  • Hector 26 October 2009, 2:39 pm

    Of all the theories I have read, this is the one that I myself truly believe in. The planet will go through its normal evolutionary changes. The problem is, we have gotten too smart to accept that, so we try to make excuses for what is inevitable which is the growth and normal changes of the planet. Face it, we weren't the first ones on this planet.

  • profvrr 27 October 2009, 10:45 am

    Your estimate is more like a guess. On what is it based? Scientists are not chicken; they prefer to use scientific method to test hypotheses. This problem is not testable given the enormous number of viruses and hosts.

  • profvrr 27 October 2009, 10:48 am

    The virus emerged initially in China and Russia, so it's highly unlikely to have come from the US. No conspiracy or germ warfare theories, please.

  • profvrr 27 October 2009, 10:52 am

    It is your choice whether to immunize you or your children against 2009 H1N1 influenza. There is no squalene in the US vaccine, and you can request the thimerisal-free, single dose version of the vaccine. Children appear to be at high risk for H1N1 influenza this year; do you wish to expose them to that risk? Deciding whether to immunize is always a matter of balancing the risks and benefits. In my view the risks of contracting fatal influenza far outweigh possible side effects of the vaccine. Then there is the fact that the more who are immunized, the less the virus will be able to spread. It requires a bit of altruistic behavior.

  • profvrr 27 October 2009, 10:54 am

    The article is dated? Of course it is – it describes the emergence of an influenza virus in 1977. It has nothing to do with the 2009 swine-origin influenza virus. As for the first daughters – they are certainly part of the at-risk pediatric population and I would be surprised if they did not eventually receive the vaccine. Here at the medical center we are technically all at risk yet no H1N1 vaccine has yet come our way.

  • Christine P 27 October 2009, 12:51 pm

    Why is it that pigs are infected with all these different types of influenza? Could any of this have to do with poor care and unsanitary living conditions of the animals. Could they be getting sick from living in filth, having open wounds that become infected, abuse, or neglect? Living in disgustingly horrible living conditions and getting sick, then being left untreated. Could that be the cause of this influenza? Where would the original infected pig get the virus from? I guess I really want to know if this could have anything to do with animal abuse and neglect? Maybe one pig died and its corpse became infected and infected the other pigs, which then infected the farmer, is this possible?

  • profvrr 27 October 2009, 1:50 pm

    And now the NY Times reports that the First Daughters have received their 2009 H1N1 vaccine: http://bit.ly/1eTpgK

  • profvrr 27 October 2009, 2:28 pm

    It's simply not a matter of mixing three or four different viruses together and seeing what comes out. This has been happening in pigs for years and it took from 1918 to 2009 for the right combination of genes and mutations to produce a virus to infect humans. This cannot be replicated in the laboratory.

  • profvrr 27 October 2009, 2:31 pm

    The theory on why pigs are infected with different types of influenza virus – mainly avian and human – is that the respiratory tract of the pig has receptors for both types of virus. It has nothing to do with 'living in filth' or unsanitary living conditions. Influenza virus entered pigs in 1918 – probably when an infected human gave the virus to a pig on a farm – and has been in pigs ever since, transmitted not only among pigs raised for food, but also among feral pigs. The virus is transmitted in the same way as it is among humans – mainly by respiratory aerosol, some contact.

  • RogerV 27 October 2009, 11:28 pm

    Well, thankfully in Aug. 2008 Baxter was awarded patent US 20090060950A1, just in time to be licensed to five or so companies that are now manufacturing it for the March/April 2009 outbreak of H1N1.

    So if it took from 1918 to 2009 for the current H1N1 pandemic to show up on the scene, evidently a benevolent hidden hand provided for a patented vaccine to be developed just in the nick of time for this 2009 emergence. Aren't we the most lucky folks in the universe to have such fortuitous coincidences fall in our laps like this?

    Sort of reminds me of how a visa of one of the 9-11 perpetrators was found unscathed in the rubble of the WTC twin towers. It's always fascinating how the major historical crisis of our era are accompanied by these miraculous occurrences.

  • Jess 28 October 2009, 4:56 pm

    What I would like to know is how it hit so fast so hard. I live in Quebec which is obviously nowhere near Mexico and in a matter of a week the H1N1 Virus is all over the place. apparently like 28 people in Montreal have died. I'm not exactly sure if that's just this week or what but it's quite disturbing. I just ran into a friend out on the street and his wife and 2 daughters have it. it's kind of nerve racking cuz I myself have a wife and 2 kids, a 1 yo and a 5 yo. In addition to all that biblical bull crap which keeps popping up….no god would kill the innocent.

  • profvrr 29 October 2009, 3:19 pm

    The rapid spread of 2009 H1N1 virus can be explained in at least two ways: most of the population has no immunity to this new strain, and airline travel is very efficient at bringing viruses around the globe.

  • Richard 30 October 2009, 6:34 pm

    August 1, 2009
    New Evidence: That The ‘Swine Flu’ Pandemic Is Man-Made
    Filed under: World — Tags: flu, Pandemic, swine flu — Satinder SINGH @ 7:36 am
    Murder suspects are either convicted or acquitted at trial based on the prosecution’s presentation of EVIDENCE which usually hinges on MOTIVE, OPPORTUNITY, and TIME-LINES combined with physical documents. To gather such hard evidence, detectives and/or federal agents often spend months following leads and interviewing witnesses. In the trial phase, re-creating the sequence of events is essential. I submit this paper will provide more than enough hard evidence to at least result in a series of criminal indictments of charges of MASS MURDER, and CONSPIRACY TO COMMIT WORLD GENOCIDE against Novartis Pharmaceutical principals and agents and others.
    The Primary Motive behind this alleged criminal activity is also the primary cause of most murders in the world today, and that motivation is simply: BIG MONEY. Billions of Dollars of windfall profits from government contracts worldwide, as a matter of fact.
    I will provide evidence that will show that Novartis Pharmaceuticals of Basel, Switzerland has conspired with corrupt “scientists” at the U.S. Army Institute of Pathology Ft. Detrick, Maryland, to create a “novel” strain of weaponized “influenza” virus by means of “reverse engineering” the deadly 1918 killer strain which strain was maliciously and surreptitiously released upon the world in March and April of 2009 for the primary purpose of creating a panic-stricken world-wide demand for Novartis vaccine material.
    The evidence will also clearly show that the Novartis vaccine material is in reality designed to facilitate the further mutation of the pandemic into more lethal waves of increasingly virulent and deadly disease, rather than to curtail and limit the existing outbreak. The evidence will show that Novartis is willingly being used, (and extremely well-paid) to facilitate the edicts of the global elite’s Club of Rome; which edicts clearly call for a massive and sudden depopulation of certain segments of the earth’s human population.
    To realize such windfall profits on an engineered, global flu pandemic, detailed covert planning must take place of course.
    Patents protecting the proprietary flu vaccine must be applied for and secured before the pandemic virus is released in order to minimize the competition and maximize the profit potentials. In a biological attack of this nature, timing is extremely critical.
    Indeed, the evidence is clear Novartis applied for just such a patent on Nov. 4, 2005, and the U.S. Patent Office accepted this application and granted US 20090047353A1 for a “Split Influenza Vaccine with Adjuvants” on February 19, 2009. (See bottom of page).
    With this patent now secured, the conspirators were now free to create the demand for their “novel” split influenza vaccine by releasing a “novel” split-influenza (combining multiple viruses) pandemic virus from a weapons lab test-tube into unsuspecting human hosts. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/ar
    The so-called “Swine Flu” grabbing headlines today is actually a recombinant, or “split-influenza” virus consisting of A-strain Bird-Flu (H5N1), Swine Flu (H1N1) and multiple strains of human flu (H3N2). Likewise, the 1918 Killer Flu that killed untold millions of people was a recombinant or “split-influenza” virus composed of Bird flu, Swine Flu, and multiple strains of human flu.
    The criminal timeline begins in 1997, when Dr. Jeffrey Taubenberger assembled a team of geneticists and microbiologists to analyze the genome structure, and then to REPRODUCE (i.e. reverse engineer) what is arguably one of the most deadly viral structures the world has ever been cursed with the 1918 killer flu virus. According to numerous published stories and reports, Taubenberger and his team utilized super-computers to map the complex RNA and DNA structures of the killer virus, then utilized human plasmids to successfully re-create the 1918 killer. Taubenberger completed his work in early 2005, then immediately left the employ of the U.S. Army at Ft. Detrick to take a much more lucrative position with the National Institutes of Health. His new focus was to create a VACCINE against the very same 1918 killer flu that he and his team had, just months earlier, successfully “reverse engineered” and created.
    This researcher is very confident that a focused criminal investigation would likely reveal prima facia evidence that Taubenberger was in reality working for Novartis while employed with the N.I.H. and was quite likely the primary author of Novartis’ Nov. 6, 2005 “provisional” patent application. On page 2, paragraph 32 of the patent publication we read, quote: “The influenza virus [that the 'invention vaccine' is designed to protect against] may be a reassortant strain, and may have been obtained by reverse genetics techniques. Reverse genetics techniques allow influenza viruses with desired genome segments to be prepared in vitro using plasmids.” The remnant of the paragraph then goes into very specific detail as to the actual mechanics of how the pandemic virus was actually created by Taubenberger’s Ft. Detrick team. At the very least, the author of the patent application had to have studied Taubenberger’s various published reports on his work at Detrick, for the wording and science is virtually verbatim.
    Furthermore, this paragraph is even more damning by the words “may have been obtained”. Who “obtained” this virus and for what reason was it “obtained”? Keep in mind the CDC and HHS would have Americans believe that the pandemic viral outbreak is totally a “natural” occurrence if so then how could Novartis have such an incredible advance knowledge to the point of developing a vaccine with such absolutely PERFECT TIMING???
    Novartis International AG is simply the world’s largest, multi-national pharmaceutical company with over $53 Billion USD revenue generated in 2008. It’s headquarters is located in Basel, Switzerland, home of the vaunted “Swiss Guards” who provide all security measures for the Vatican and the Club of Rome. The company logo symbolizes the “eternal flame” of the Illuminati “enlightened ones”. Dig into Novartis International AG’s long history, and one finds that it began as a component of the infamous I.G. Farben combine, which in turn was primarily responsible for the rise of Adolph Hitler and the German/Austrian Third Reich.
    Dig a bit deeper and you find that Novartis also wholly owns a company called Sandoz which was the inventor of LSD and other strong hallucinogenic “truth” drugs, and was the supplier of LSD to the CIA allowing them to scale new heights with their covert “MK ULTRA” mind control experiments. Documents released to U.S. Congressional investigators in 1977 show that Sandoz Labs had arranged for certain Nazi scientists to gain new identities in Allen Dulles’ CIA at the conclusion of WWII. This was accomplished under a secret extraction program called “Operation Paper Clip”.
    The address listed on the Novartis Patent applications is a P.O. Box in Emeryville, California. Up until the summer of 2005, this Emeryville California address belonged to Chiron Inc. the world’s second-largest INFLUENZA VACCINE MANUFACTURER. Chiron was doing very well, with reported sales of $357 million in fiscal 2002. Chiron’s sales nearly doubled, peaking at a whopping $678 million in 2003 and it was mostly due to the marketing and sale of FLU VACCINE CONTRACTS to the federal government. Novartis, which owned much of Chiron’s stock, was very pleased, until disaster struck in 2004 — the entire year’s stock of flu vaccine was found to be contaminated and was condemned.
    Stock values plummeted on the news. With the stock at a historic low, Novartis quickly purchased the remainder of Chiron’s stock and began immediately to work on the massive “novel pandemic flu” vaccine that they somehow knew would soon have worldwide demand especially if they controlled the exclusive patent they could effectively “corner the pandemic flu vaccine market”!!
    I would submit that killing tens of thousands of innocent humans via the systemic creation of a “pandemic” in order to make billions of dollars is vile enough, but there is also evidence that there is an even more heinous hidden agenda at work here, and it is spelled GENOCIDE.
    It is no mystery that Adolph Hitler advocated the elevation of a Nordic “Master Race” that would rule the world in a “New Order of the Ages” called the “Third Reich”. Sadly, not all of the EUGENIC/GENOCIDAL National Socialists were executed at Nuremburg.
    In reality, the elite financiers that actually dictated the agenda to Hitler, merely went underground, willing to bide their time until their godless agenda to liquidate BILLIONS of people could be successfully implemented.
    The evidence that the Novartis-controlled “Pandemic Vaccine” may well be a tool of mass genocide, is actually quite overwhelming.
    At this point, some readers may scoff and ask: “Why would any company want to kill off their customers?” The answer is that these “customers” control large blocks of assets and equity. As Kissinger’s “NSSM-200″ report outlines, the “spoils” of genocide include controlling large tracts of land and mineral assets. This is secondary, of course, to their warped dream of creating a Utopian World Order with only 500 million “worthy” humans allowed to share in it.
    While George H.W. Bush was busy saving the world from the evil dictator Saddam Hussein in 1991, pursuant to his U.N. speech to create a “new world order” an agenda for an “Initiative for Eco-92 Earth Charter” elitist meeting happened to fall into honest, Christian hands. This agenda basically reiterated the genocide outlined in Henry Kissinger’s infamous NSSM-200 report of 1974, and called for “the immediate reduction of world population.” The entire report can be downloaded at:
    My extensive research shows that by 1992, the massive death rate of AIDS had simply not materialized to the Elite’s satisfaction, and a more efficient mass killer had to be engineered in order to fulfill the edicts cut into the “Georgia Guidestones”.
    Evidence shows that like the 2009 “Novel” Flu Virus the HIV virus was also engineered and manufactured in the labs of Ft. Detrick.
    In 1969, during a House Appropriations Committee hearing, the Defense Department’s Biological Warfare (BW) division at Ft. Detrick requested funds to develop, through complex gene-splicing (i.e. genetic engineering) a “novel” new disease that would both be resistant to, and break down a victim’s immune system. The Congressional Record reads:
    “Within the next 5 to 10 years it would probably be possible to make a new infective micro-organism which could differ in certain important respects from any known disease-causing organisms. Most important of these is that it might be refractory to the immunological and therapeutic processes upon which we depend to maintain our relative freedom from infectious diseases.”
    The funds for this “Dr. Strangelove” project were somehow approved. AIDS “magically” appeared within the requested time frame, and of course, just happens to exhibit the exact characteristics specified by the Ft. Detrick scientists.
    Three years later, in 1972, the fledgling World Health Organization (WHO) published a very similar proposal to the one submitted to the U.S. House Appropriations Committee in 1969. The WHO proposed that: “An attempt should be made to ascertain whether viruses can in fact exert selective effects on immune function, e.g., by …affecting T cell function as opposed to B cell function. The possibility should also be looked into that the immune response to the virus itself may be impaired if the infecting virus damages more or less selectively the immune cells responding to the viral antigens.” (Bulletin of the W.H.O., vol. 47, p 257- 274.) This is a “textbook” clinical description of the function of the HIV/AIDS virus.
    The W.H.O. shortly thereafter begins a massive “smallpox vaccination” program in Africa in 1975. Within two years, millions of smallpox vaccines are provided by Novartis et. al, under U.N.I.C.E.F. funding. A decade later, it is determined by independent journalists in the U.K. that the incidence of AIDS infections’ MAPPED AND GRAPHED EPICENTERS in Africa coincided exactly with the locations of the W.H.O. smallpox vaccination program centers in the mid-1970’s (Source, The London Times, May 11, 1987). Some 14,000 Haitians then on UN ‘humanitarian missions’ to Central Africa were also vaccinated in this campaign, and soon contracted HIV. Personnel actually conducting the vaccinations of the Haitians maintain they had been completely unaware that the vaccine was anything other than a routine shot.
    In 1987, Dr. Hilleman, head of all vaccine production of Merck Pharmaceuticals stunned the world with his public admissions that the mass vaccination campaigns of the 1950s and ’60s likely caused thousands of cancer deaths each year. This was due to the presence of a cancer-causing virus that contaminated the first polio vaccine, according to Dr. Hilleman. Known as SV40, the virus originated from dead monkeys whose kidney cells were used to culture the first Salk vaccines. Doctors estimate that the virus was injected into tens of millions during the vaccination campaigns, including several million in Canada, before being detected and screened out in 1963. Those born between 1941 and 1961 are thought to be most at risk of having been infected with SV40, and are estimated to have a 300% greater chance of developing cancer. According to Hilleman MERCK KNEW THE VACCINES WERE INFECTED WITH SV40, but distributed them anyway. See http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=edikv0zbAlU
    Furthermore, research doctors in New Orleans reported in 1963 that a percentage of the Salk polio vaccines were found to have attenuated, (live) viruses, which actually CAUSED tens of thousands of polio cases during the 1950’s.
    Following the successful liberation of Kuwait in Operation Desert Storm, hundreds of thousands of victorious American troops are suddenly stricken with a wide variety of auto-immune disorders that doctors named the Gulf War Syndrome, (GWS). After a decade of medical investigation, the culprit is finally determined to be an ingredient in the anthrax vaccinations mandatorily given to the troops. This offending “adjuvant” is a synthetic material known as squalene aka, oil-in-water adjuvant. Writer and Gulf War correspondent Gary Matsumoto documents this entire, tragic saga in his seminal book, “Vaccine-A”. See http://www.vaccine-a.com.
    Understanding these historical facts is very important for this reason: Those that ignore history are doomed to repeat it. This is doubly true when it comes to blindly accepting a “novel” mass vaccination for a weaponized, “reverse engineered” virus.
    The historical record is very clear attenuated, live viruses in vaccines SPREAD the disease very effectively. When combined with SQUALENE ADJUVANT the virus becomes many times more potent and lethal. When given to CHILDREN IN SCHOOLS, millions of “typhoid Matts and Marys” will be spreading the disease exponentially.
    Chillingly, the Novartis patent for the “novel pandemic flu” declares that “African green monkey kidney cells” will be used for the “viral growth substrate” i.e. the carrier medium.
    (Page 3, paragraph 0037) We also see that “oil-in-water” squalene-based adjuvants will also be included (page 8 ¬ 0098) but most incredible of all, because this is a “recombinant” and “novel” split vaccine, it is deemed necessary to include fragments of attenuated viruses (i.e. live pathogens) in the vaccine medium.
    On July 13, 2009, the W.H.O. sanctioned this lunacy by declaring: “In view of the anticipated limited vaccine availability at global level and the potential need to protect against “drifted” strains of virus, it is recommended that promoting production and use of vaccines such as those that are formulated with oil-in-water adjuvants and live attenuated influenza vaccines is important.”
    In conclusion and summation, it should be evident that the “2009 Swine Flu” could just as easily be called the “Bird Flu” because it is as much H5N1 (bird flu) as H1N1 (pig flu.) Novartis knew this in 2005 when it received hundreds of millions of dollars from Mike Leavitt’s HHS to develop and patent the “bird flu” vaccine. I publicly charge that Novartis had advance knowledge of this “combination” because they had been in consultation with Jeffrey Taubenberger for years.
    It is further evident that Novartis’ patent provides for “influenza vaccine kits” to be provided to other pharmaceutical manufacturers as well. These “kits” are the basic raw ingredients needed for the other companies to build their own vaccines under their own label.
    In 2005, this “jobbing” of separate ingredients by multiple companies would never have been allowed because of the legal liability issues involved. However, in 2009, all liabilities for death and disability from faulty or contaminated vaccines have been stripped away. Any wrongful death or disability lawsuits against Novartis or any other company will today be summarily dismissed.
    Novartis today has carte blanche blanket immunity for their actions and any large pharmaceutical company who so desires, can join them at the feeding troughs just by paying millions for their “kits”.
    If this isn’t the pinnacle of criminality, then I don’t know what is.
    Novartis, if this “novel split vaccine” is so wonderful and safe, why do you require such blanket protection from litigation?

  • RogerV 31 October 2009, 12:30 pm

    Satinder Singh looks to have copied this article near verbatim from this posting:

    Startling New Evidence That The 'Swine Flu' Pandemic Is Man-Made
    Novartis Patent Detailed And Mass Murder Charged
    By A. True Ott, PhD, ND

  • Bear 31 October 2009, 1:42 pm

    If russia or china released the H1N1 virus…. can they be held accountable for the spread and cost of vaccine ?

  • JuJo 2 November 2009, 6:47 am

    But where did it originate from???

  • jbones 4 November 2009, 10:10 pm

    Well Roger what a breath of fresh air you are.
    Baxter gets a patent for a virus six months before H1N1 actually rears its ugly head in a moutainous city in Mexico on the same day the U.S. Commander in Chief pays a visit.

    Maybe it is the same miraculous coincidence that the previous C in C has a brother Marvin who's security company retire their position a couple of days before a couple of aircraft (from airlines also under the security of Marvin's company) smack into the WTC spewing lethal kerosene that can melt steel causing the buildings to fall down. Wow! I wish my Kero-Sun heater could do that.
    I always found when trying to melt steel that you needed Oxygen (and plentyof it) to get a fuel hot enough to accomplish that. I wonder how you find that much oxygen that would keep spewing black smoke for some time before lethally beginning a trek through a hermaticlly sealed shaft to the basement. And the pasport visa survived.

    My, my, how I love coincidences.


  • lilaaron 9 November 2009, 10:40 am

    will someone tell me wat is a origin h1n1 will someone please.. im at skool and i need dis answer..

  • Woop 11 November 2009, 4:34 am

    I checked out this patent. It's not a “swine flu vaccine” patent as some people have claimed. It's just a patent for another way of developing a viral vaccine. I have no idea how common this is, so I can't comment too deeply on its significance, but it doesn't seem sinister.

  • Woop 11 November 2009, 4:34 am

    I checked out this patent. It's not a “swine flu vaccine” patent as some people have claimed. It's just a patent for another way of developing a viral vaccine. I have no idea how common this is, so I can't comment too deeply on its significance, but it doesn't seem sinister.

  • Woop 11 November 2009, 4:36 am

    Who said the steel needed to melt for the building to collapse? I'm pretty sure a steel rod will break long before it melts.

  • Dee 12 November 2009, 10:32 am

    umm, just a thought from a common lay person.. WE'RE ALL GOING TO DIE ANYWAY….!!!

  • profvrr 12 November 2009, 10:34 am

    That's true, but wouldn't you rather live for 70-80 years rather than 30?

  • mollymcphee 14 November 2009, 5:30 pm

    H1N1 Spanish influenza 1918…yes WE HAVE SEEN IT BEFORE

  • Esam 20 November 2009, 6:26 am

    Fk u

  • John Charlton 25 November 2009, 9:42 pm

    Dr. Racaniello,

    What is your reaction to the recent article in Virology, on the origin of the Swine Flu


    by Drs. Gibbs & company….

  • goody 29 November 2009, 8:23 am

    All of you have no life at all ecspacially the faggot who wrote the freakin essay as reply. None of this is interesting and you will all die cold and alone in your mothers basement